Hay Fever

Allergies, generally referred to as hay fever, are the body’s response to airborne particles, for example, dust or pollen. Individuals with hay fever appear to have a sensitive immune system that is very responsive to substances foreign to the body. Histamine excites the nose and airways, and other chemicals cause the notable side effects of hay fever: blockage, runny or irritated nose, itchy throat, watery or irritated eyes, and irritation in the ears. This fever typically influences individuals amongst May and October.


This condition is characterized by bleeding. It can prove fatal to the mother and the baby. Haemorrhage occurs in about one percent of pregnancies. There are two types of haemorrhage, one that occur in early pregnancy and one in late pregnancy. In early pregnancy one out of four women bleed. Miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy (attachment of egg outside uterus) can be the main cause of bleeding early in pregnancy. Other causes of haemorrhage include intercourse, expansion of uterus, hormonal changes and use of drugs. Heavy bleeding can also be a sign of rupture of uterus and premature contractions. In rare situations severe postpartum haemorrhage can be a result of inherited bleeding disorder like haemophilia which increases the risk of death. 

If the woman is bleeding early in pregnancy, then it is best to see a doctor for vaginal ultrasound check up and blood tests. A vaginal ultrasound provides the best view of pregnancy which is put through a narrow probe in vagina. This ultrasound has to be preformed after six weeks of pregnancy as the embryo has a small heartbeat in first six weeks. This examination also proves if the pregnancy is ectopic and it is possible to determine early signs of miscarriage. A blood test can determine miscarriage if the level of pregnancy hormone is unusually slow in rising or if it is falling.

Although light bleeding is common in early trimester of pregnancy it doesn’t always mean the mother’s situation is leading to a miscarriage. This is usually the cause of no alarm but if the doctors have detected signs of haemorrhage then it can be prevented by avoiding exercise, staying in bed and by avoiding standing for long period of time.

Heart Burn (Indigestion)

Heartburn, also known as dyspepsia or indigestion, is a burning sensation in the chest which is experienced after eating. During pregnancy, heartburn usually occurs in the second trimester and affects about two-third of the pregnant women. Women complain of:

1. Feeling nauseous

2. Feeling full or heavy

3. Burping

4. Regurgitation of food or food coming up from the stomach

Heart burn during pregnancy is mostly hormone related. During pregnancy, the placenta produces large amounts of a hormone called Progesterone. This Progesterone surge causes relaxation of many smooth muscles. Among these are the sphincter muscles between oesophagus and stomach. Due to decreased activity of the digestive system, also due to progesterone, and reduced mobility in the gastrointestinal tract, contents from stomach reflux back to the oesophagus causing an unpleasant burning sensation.

Later in the pregnancy, the growing size of foetus pushes stomach upwards again leading to reverse movement of stomach contents into the oesophagus leading to indigestion. Having learned what causes heartburn, it is important to identify the ways of relieving this condition. 

1. Certain drinks and food are said to be an important cause of heartburn so it is best to avoid them. These include carbonated drinks, alcohol, citrus fruits, spicy food, processed food, and tomatoes.

2. It is also said to avoid overeating; small sips of water and small bites of food are beneficial. It is also recommended to take small meals for an example 5 meals instead of the regular three is a good idea. The purpose is not to overfill the stomach.

3. Avoid eating immediately before sleeping or lying down. You should eat around 2-3 hours before going to bed.

4. Try to keep the chest and head elevated while sleeping. This could be done by using extra pillows.

5. Wear loose fitting clothes to avoid exerting any pressure on the abdomen.

6. Using ginger to ease heartburn, nausea, and vomiting.

7. Taking medication- antacids containing calcium and magnesium, and H2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors.

Heart Murmurs

Neonates often present with sounds from the heart region. In most cases, it is known as ‘innocent’, which is due to blood in arteries and heart beating. In a diseased condition, murmurs result from defects in structure and components of an infant heart. Murmurs are the first way to diagnose a heart condition in a neonate. Infants with murmurs   have  extra unusual sounds of the heartbeat, signs can include  breathing problems, excessive sweating, poor feeding issues, dizziness or fainting

High Blood Pressure

Is defined as blood pressure higher than 140/90 mmHg.  High blood pressure during pregnancy isn’t always dangerous but it can sometimes cause severe health complications for both mother and developing baby. According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, an increasing number of pregnant women in the United States have this condition.

Causes of high blood pressure include obesity, smoking, alcohol, maternal age, first time pregnancy and family history. Furthermore, as stated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, using assistive technologies (such as IVF) during the conception process can increase chances of high blood pressure in a pregnant woman. Women who had high blood pressure before pregnancy are at higher risk for related complications during pregnancy than those with normal blood pressure. If high blood pressure continues after 20 months of pregnancy complications can develop.

There are three types of pregnancy-related blood pressure conditions which include chronic hypertension (some doctors consider the blood pressure occurring in the first 20 weeks as chronic and it is mostly related to pre-existing high blood pressure and this can be treated by blood pressure medication), Gestational hypertension ( it usually develops after the 20th week of the pregnancy and can induce complications in labor, it gets resolved after delivery), and Chronic Hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia (Another type of chronic hypertension is when a woman has hypertension before she becomes pregnant,  protein is urine can also be experienced with increased complications).  It can damage various organs including kidneys and brain. Women presents with persistent headaches, swelling in hands and feet and protein in urine. If left untreated, it can be fatal for both mother and the baby. In severe cases pregnancy is terminated to save the life of mother.

High Risk Pregnancy

It is a type of pregnancy that carries  a danger to the life and health of mother and baby. In some cases pregnancy is terminated, advice of the doctor should be taken for any future pregnancy. High risk pregnancy can be either lifelong condition or may be due to a problem that develops  for the first time during pregnancy. There are several factors which increase the risk of pregnancy these include:

1. Maternal diabetes

2. Hypertension

3. Cancer

4. Kidney disease

5. Alcohol use

6. Younger than 17 and older than 35

7. Three or more miscarriage

8. Drugs and medications

9. Having major problems in last pregnancy.

10. HIV or hepatitis C

11. Taking certain medicines

The patient should be well aware of the condition and preventive measures should be taken. Otherwise it could be fatal for both mother and the baby. It is possible that the baby may develop health problems after birth which may include birth defects and growth problems.

Some things can reduce the risk this includes consulting health care providers for the right time to start conceiving by scheduling preconception visits, ask  information providers for nutritional guidance, inform them about previous complications if any or medical history.  Smoking and drinking alcohol should be avoided and emotional wellbeing of the mother is inportant


Hookworms are little blood feeding  parasitic worms that that live in the  small intestines. Most children with hookworm  have no signs or side effects. Be that as it may, particularly when the contamination is long term, it can bring about iron deficiency and malaise (low red blood cells) due to a  leakage from the intestines where the worm is attached. An irritated, red skin rash (can show up on the feet.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Hyperemesis Gravidarum is a condition characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and electrolyte disturbance. Mild cases are treated with dietary changes, rest, and antacids. More severe cases often require admittance in the hospital so that the mother can be administered fluid and nutrition via IV line. The majority of pregnant women experience some type of morning sickness (70 – 80%). Recent researches have illustrated that at least 60,000 cases of acute morning sickness called Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) are reported by those who have been treated in a hospital but the numbers are expected to be much higher.

The exact cause of Hyperemesis Gravidarum is not known. Risk factors include first pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, obesity, systemic or family history of Hyperemesis Gravidarum, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of an eating disorder. Signs and symptoms include vomiting several times a day, weight loss, dehydration, headaches, fainting fatigue, food aversions,  decrease in urination, jaundice,  anxiety, and low blood pressure. It mainly occurs due to hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy in the body of mother. Babies born are of lower birth weight and born before 37 months of pregnancy. Treatment includes drinking fluids, healthy diet, rest and medications if the problem is severe.  Hospital Treatment includes:

1. Intravenous fluids (IV) – to restore hydration, electrolytes, vitamins, and nutrients

2. Tube Feeding ( Nasogastric, Percutaneous  endoscopic gastrotomy)

Medications – metoclopramide, antihistamines, and antireflux medications