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Labial Adhesion occurs in baby girls by the age of 3 months. The inner lips of vagina become stuck together which leads to discomfort. Labial Adhesion most commonly occurs when the lips of vagina become irritated due to dirty diapers or scented detergent and soap. The best way is to leave it as it is because with passage of time regrowth will alleviate the trouble. Better sanitary care can prevent such conditions from developing.
Babies born with weight more than the expected are known as LGA babies. LGA babies are often large because their parents are large or due to weight gain of the mother during pregnancy. However maternal diabetes is the most common cause, resulting in more glucose available for the foetus. Complications of LGA births involve increased risk of birth injury, difficult birth and a foetus with lower blood glucose level or respiratory disorders.
Painful contraction or tightening of the calve muscles is a common condition that occurs during pregnancy. About 50% of pregnant women are reported to have these cramps which tend to increase in the evening. They are more frequent in the second and third trimester and increase till delivery. Patients have also been reported to wake up during the night due to pain and discomfort.
Doctors have theorized that these involuntary muscle contractions are due to excessive strain on leg muscles while standing or walking with the extra weight of the foetus. The pressure of the foetus on certain blood vessels that go to the legs cause decreased circulatory flow hence, cramping. It also might occur due to fluid build-up in the legs. Another common cause is dehydration.
Few things that help relieve the cramps include:
1. Slight exercise of leg muscles
2. Massaging of the calves and feet, with strokes towards the feet
3. Standing barefoot on a hard floor and lifting the toes up
4. Staying hydrated
5. Increasing calcium in the diet for example by increasing intake of milk
6. Applying heat pads to the legs
7. Resting with the legs elevated
Certain medication such as acetaminophen
However, it is even better if we try to prevent these cramps instead of treating them. First of all, standing for long periods of time without rests in between should be avoided. Sitting for long periods with legs crossed is also not a good idea. Secondly, make sure that exercise is an essential part of your day, slight flexing and stretching with standing and sitting especially before bed. Taking enough fluids in the form of water or milk is healthy. The levels of potassium, sodium, and calcium must not fall below the normal range so care must be taken to include these nutrients in the diet. Following all these guidelines reduces, if not eliminating these cramps considerably.
Linea Nigra, also called pregnancy line, is a dark pigmented line which runs vertically in the centre of the abdomen from the chest muscles to the belly button and below to the groin region. This line is always present in some people but is lighter in colour and gets darker during pregnancy. It is usually about 0.25 to 0.5 inches wide and brownish in colour.
Cause of Linea Nigra is the increase in levels of hormones during pregnancy. Chloasma, the darkening of the skin of the face, is caused by hormones of pregnancy. Similarly, these hormones cause the formation of Linea Nigra. The hormones that have been hypothesized to cause this is the melanocyte stimulating hormone produced by the placenta. Linea Nigra is basically Linea Alba, white line, which gets hyperpigmented in pregnancy. Another contributing factor is that as the muscles of abdomen stretch and separate, Linea Nigra forms. This happens around the 25th week and tends to get darker as pregnancy advances. Moreover, this line is even darker if you are expecting twins or triplets due to increased hormone levels.
Dark coloured women, especially the ones belonging to Asian and African groups, are more susceptible to Linea Nigra. Good news is that Linea Nigra is neither painful nor harmful for both the mother and the baby. It is only aesthetically displeasing.
The pigmented line cannot be prevented but the plus point is that this line fades away gradually after giving birth when the hormones return to normal value. However, sometimes it takes slightly longer to go away if you are breast feeding your baby. If you want this line to be less pronounced during pregnancy, it is recommended to use sun block, cover your belly especially in sun as exposure to UV rays can worsen the pigmentation. It is also advisable to eat a healthier diet consisting of vegetables and folic acid.
It is a type of pregnancy which is safe and does not impart any risk to the life and health of the mother or the baby. When weight of the mother, overall health and age are within a safe range it is more likely that the pregnancy is low risk. This can also be concluded from the mothers past medical and pregnancy history. Low risk pregnancy is mostly likely to occur in women of age 18-39.
There are many factors which ensure safety of the pregnancy. If the mother is taking proper nutrition many risk factors can be avoided. Healthy lifestyle is most important determinant of low risk pregnancy. Eating well in pregnancy is to follow a diet that has 75 to 100 grams of proteins per day from different sources of proteins along with dairy, soy and high-complex carbohydrates. Eating healthy can reduce problems with gestational diabetes, placental abruptions, breastfeeding, premature labour and other serious problems. Exercising can also help determine physical strength and stamina before delivery as it focuses on strengthening certain muscles during labour.
Avoiding harmful substances, drugs and medicine also decrease the risk. Harmful substances include caffeine, alcohol, smoking, pesticides, pollution; Medicines taken during pregnancy should also be administered by the doctors. Educating the mother in choosing a birth attendant and birth plan (that helps in setting priorities and goals) wisely ensures that both the mother and the baby are in a good shape. Place of birth should also be chosen as low risk pregnancy makes it possible to have natural birth in a home setting.