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Almost one-third of babies and infants in nappies have nappy rash. It is rare in newborns. The main cause is wearing a wet or unclean nappy for an extended period. Not cleaning the buttocks or changing the diapers often, using soap, detergents or chemically laced baby wipes. The skin on the child’s buttocks is red and sore. Sometimes nappy rash can spread to the child’s tummy or up towards the baby’s thighs and back. Some areas of skin might be raised or inflamed, with disruptions to the skin.
Injury to the inner surface of intestines seen in preterm infants is known as NEC. It is most probably due to decreased blood supply to the premature new-born, which results in injury. NEC patients presents with swollen abdomen and may vomit a greenish yellow vomit. Abdominal X-Rays are used for diagnosis. Surgeries are often undertaken, and the chances of survival has increased 60-80%.
Nosebleeds, also known as epistaxis might present frequently during pregnancy. A pregnant woman is three times more likely to get nose bleeds than a non-pregnant woman of the same age. However, it’s not a serious medical complication and there’s not much to worry about unless you lose a lot of blood. About 20% of pregnant women experience nosebleeds. Blood vessels of the nose are delicate and due to effects of progesterone, these vessels expand. Blood flow increases too during pregnancy which often results in damage to these vessels in the nose. This causes nosebleeds and it might also occur while you’re asleep. Women more prone to nose bleeds are the ones suffering from colds, sinus infections and those staying in cold, dry weather. High blood pressure and clotting abnormalities also predispose to nosebleeds.
Below are some tips to stop nosebleeds:
1. Sit upright, do not lie down
2. Apply pressure on the nose by pinching it. Maintain pressure for about 10 mins.
3. Lean forward and breathe through the mouth
4. Apply cold pack. This helps constrict the vessels and reduces blood flow. A pack of frozen peas would do the trick.
5. Avoid strenuous activity at least 12 hours after a nosebleed.
6. Also, avoid bending
It is a good idea to see a doctor if the bleeding continues after 30 minutes, or if its associated with chest pains or if the flow is heavy. Since nosebleeds cause a loss of blood, a diet rich in iron is advised eg leafy green vegetables like spinach, keeping the body hydrated is equally a priority. Avoid blowing the nose too hard. Keep the mouth open during sneezing to prevent the build-up of pressure in the nose, avoid dry and cold places or use a lubricant to keep the nose hydrated. Steer clear of smoke and chemicals.