Respiratory Distress Syndrome

It is a common breathing disorder in premature infants who are delivered 6 weeks or more before the due date. Premature infants lack the surfactant (a liquid coating of  the lung from inside) which helps in keeping the lungs open so that the infant can breathe right after they are born. The deficient lungs collapse, making it hard for the infant to breathe. The baby does not breathe in sufficient oxygen to meet the requirements of the body organs. The lack of oxygen can however damage the baby’s brain as well as other organs if left untreated. In severe cases, the infant dies.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)

ROP is a condition seen in premature infants. There is abnormal growth of blood vessels in the innermost layer of the  eye, this leads to partial or complete blindness. Blood vessels of eye grow rapidly in the last weeks before birth. When born prematurely, they grow abnormally leading to blindness. ROP patients are frequently checked by physicians to prevent further growth of blood vessels.


Reflux in children is very common. There’s a valve made of smooth muscles which controls the entry of food from the oesophagus to the stomach. When the child is feeding, the valve opens letting milk pass through the valve into  the stomach where it mixes with stomach’s acid. When the stomach is full, some milk and acid can flow back from the oesophagus  into the mouth


Ringworm is a fungal infection caused by fungi. The infection initially presents with red coverings on affected areas of the skin and later spreads to other parts of the body. This may affect the the scalp, feet, groin, facial hair, or other areas. Indications vary depending on where the child is infected. With a skin infection, a child may experience the following: red, prickly, scaly, or elevated patches that develop blisters or begin to ooze. Patches that may be redder on the outside edges that are defined and raised.


Rickets is the relaxing and weakening of bones in children, usually because of an extreme  vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D encourages the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the digestive tract. An insufficiency of vitamin D makes it hard to conserve proper calcium and phosphorus levels in bones, which can cause rickets. Indications of rickets can include late growth, discomfort in the backbone, pelvis and legs.


Most children with roseola grow a mild upper respiratory illness, trailed by a high fever for up to a week. In the meantime, a child might be fussy or bad-tempered, have a loss of appetite, and may have swelling in the neck. The high fever often ends abruptly, and at about the same time a pinkish-red flat or elevated rash starts on the chest. The rash’s spots turn white when touched. The rash usually spreads to the neck, face and extremities. The fever of roseola lasts from 4 to 7 days, followed by a rash lasting  hours to a few days.


Rubella is otherwise called German measles. Rubella is a viral respiratory sickness that is  to some degree infectious.  A child with rubella commonly has a measles-like rash and a low fever. The primary sign in children is  an irritated rash, generally beginning on the face and neck and later spreading to other parts of the body. The rash may look like pink or light red spots, which may converge to  fairly coloured patches. It commonly goes on for a few days.


Rhesus Status

Like the different blood groups, Rhesus D Status ascertains whether red blood cells of the mother have a certain protein called antigen or not. Most of the people that have the antigen  are known as Rhesus D positive. Those who don’t have the antigen are called Rh negative. Problems occur when a Rh-negative mother has a Rh-positive baby. This is called Rh incompatibility. The mother’s immune system makes antibodies against RBCs from the child. No serious complications occur during the first child, but if the next child is also Rh positive, mother’s antibodies cause breakdown of the fetus’ RBCs considering them foreign invaders. This happens when the foetus’s blood comes into contact with mother’s blood. This is called sensitization.

During the second or subsequent pregnancies, Rh antibodies from Rh sensitized mother cross the placenta and cause breakdown of the RBCs of the fetus. This leads to HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. This anemia can be life-threatening and can cause problems in the baby such as swelling, fluid retention, and heart failure. When born, the baby becomes jaundiced which is called the hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) In this disease, there’s a risk of permanent brain damage and neurological problems. Therefore, in this case of severe anemia, preterm delivery is necessary or blood transfusion to the baby in the uterus is required through the umbilical cord.

However, to prevent this, antibody screening is done to identify how many antibodies, if any, have been developed to Rh positive blood. If the mother is not already sensitized, then Rh immunoglobulin injection (RhIg) is given. This prevents the production of Rh antibodies and hence prevents fetal hemolytic anemia later in pregnancy. This injection should be given either 28 weeks after pregnancy or after a miscarriage or 72 hours after the delivery of Rh positive baby so that your immune response is not triggered.