Malaria is a life-threatening disease for children under the age of 5. Babies with malaria present with fever and chills. It is caused by a certain kind of mosquito which only bites at night. It is prevalent in African and South Asian countries, mainly due to lack of adequate sanitary conditions. Babies under 2 months are least likely to catch malaria because of the immunity it receives from mother.


Mastitis is a painful condition of the breasts experienced by some women. One out of five breastfeeding women is affected by it. However, women who are not breast feeding may develop it too. It develops in the first three months after birth and usually, one breast is affected.

There are two main causes of mastitis:

1. It could be due to an infection that develops mostly due to incorrect breast-feeding technique. The different pathogens that are involved are streptococcus agalactaie, staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacterium and mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacteria can enter the baby’s mouth then into the milk ducts when feeding thus causing them to be blocked.

2. Secondly, inflammation of breasts occurs due abnormal flow of milk in the breasts. Breastfeeding becomes very painful and difficult. An oversupply of milk or when a baby doesn’t suckle properly most commonly lead to mastitis.

Signs and symptoms of mastitis include:

1. Mothers present with a lump, patches of redness over the underlying skin

2. Aching muscles

3. Nausea

4. Fever and flu-like symptoms

It is best to see a doctor if mastitis develops, the doctor usually recommends an antibiotic to treat the infection and anti-inflammatory medicines or pain killers. Other measures can be taken to ease the pain such as getting plenty of rest and staying hydrated. Wearing loose-fitting clothes is helpful too. Application of a cold pack helps ease the inflammation and pain. Since one cause of mastitis is the stasis of milk in the breast, it should be made sure that the affected breast is kept empty. This is done by feeding the baby from that breast and there is no contraindication for using the affected breast to feed the baby. Breast-feeding training is recommended for new mothers. Furthermore, massaging the breasts is beneficial too. If left untreated, mastitis can develop into a pus producing abscess. It may also cause the destruction of the mammary gland.


Also known as rubeola is characterised by a body full of rash, runny cough and high fever. It is caused by a type of virus known as paramyxovirus. Measles once an epidemic is now limited mostly to low-income countries. It is highly contagious and 90% people without vaccination can catch measles when in close proximity to the affected person. 

Meckel’s Diverticulum

A Meckel’s diverticulum is a slight bulge in the small intestine present at birth. Despite the availability of modern imaging techniques, diagnosis is challenging. Although Meckel diverticulum is usually harmless, some complications can require clinical attention. If the diverticulum is made up of stomach or pancreatic tissue, it can lead to intestinal blockage, blood in stools and pain in children. In case of excessive bleeding, emergency surgical measures have to be taken.

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

Meconium refers to the earliest stool of an infant/newborn,  At times in delayed delivery the foetus passes the stool within the uterus. Meconium in such cases is present  in the amniotic fluid and is breathed into the lungs by the foetus, leading to breathing problems due to blockages in lungs. Babies with MAS have difficulty in breathing but it hardly develops into anything serious


Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system organs, principally the brain and spinal cord. It can occur in children from the age of 2 months to 3 months, and is known as neonatal meningitis. In most cases it’s due to a viral or bacterial infection.  Vaccines are available to help protect against some kinds of bacterial meningitis. Meningitis caused by viruses is serious but often is less severe than bacterial meningitis. It risks permanent deafness, intellectual disability and even death.


It is the natural death of the baby in the uterus during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, also known as spontaneous abortion and pregnancy loss. It is a very stressful situation for a women and their partner to deal with. According to the American College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists (ACOG), miscarriage is the most common type of pregnancy loss. Research studies demonstrate that about 10-25 % of all clinically acknowledged pregnancies will result in miscarriage. Chemical pregnancies may account for 50-75 % of all miscarriages. This kind of miscarriage occurs when pregnancy is lost shortly after implantation. Reasons of miscarriage can vary and cannot always be identified. The most common cause of miscarriage is chromosomal abnormality during the first trimester.  These abnormalities are caused by the damaged egg or sperm cell or occur at a time when the zygote goes through division process.  Other causes include increase in maternal age, smoking, alcohol, infections and hormonal problems. Statistics show that women over the age of 45 can have up to a 50% chance of miscarriage and a woman who has had a previous miscarriage has a approximately 25% chance of experiencing another  miscarriage (only a mild elevated risk as compared to someone who has not had a previous miscarriage).

There are several types of miscarriages including threatened miscarriage, inevitable or incomplete miscarriage, complete miscarriage, missed miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage (blighted ovum, ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy). The main purpose of treatment during or after a miscarriage is to prevent haemorrhaging or infection.  The body is more likely to expel fetal tissue if the pregnancy is in its initial stages and would not require medical procedures.  However, the medical treatment commonly used is dilation and curettage, D&C, to prevent infection or bleeding when the body is not expelling the tissues on its own. Drugs are used for further control, and the bleeding should be monitored regularly at home. Patient experiences mild to severe back pain, weight loss, white pink mucous, true contractions and blood passing through vagina. Usually it cannot be prevented but a healthy life style, balanced diet, avoiding stress and smoking can reduce the risk of miscarriages.

Morning Sickness

Medically referred to as ‘nausea and vomiting in pregnancy’, it does not necessarily occur during the morning. Half to three-quarters of pregnant women experience this during the first trimester and it tends to worsen over the month. It usually stops after the 12th week but it may come and go throughout the entire pregnancy. Almost 50% of the women have reported suffering from morning sickness.

Nausea is most likely caused by effects of a hormone known as human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and oestrogen. There is a direct relationship between the increase in the levels of these hormones and onset of nausea and vomiting. Women pregnant with twins or triplets have a higher risk of developing morning sickness due to a greater increase in hormone levels. Stress and certain scents also trigger the gag reflex and so it is appropriate to say that enhanced sensitivity to smell and odour also contribute to this condition.

The mild condition poses no risks but excessive vomiting often risks a preterm birth resulting in  foetus that is underdeveloped. Other than that, it may also lead to weight loss of the mother due to the inability to keep food inside the body.

Some of the ways to get relief from morning sickness are:

1. Making sure stomach is never empty so take small meals throughout the day.

2. Take adequate fluids to stay hydrated but drink at least half an hour before meals and not during meals.

3. Avoid foods that trigger your nausea and vomiting. Also, avoid taking spicy and fatty foods.

4. Stay clear of the scents that trigger your nausea.

5. Keep the windows and doors open while cooking to avoid unwanted scents and to get fresh air.

6. Get up slowly in the morning and it is usually recommended to eat some snack before getting up.

7. Stress relieving activities are highly recommended such as relaxation meditation

8. Take vitamin and folic acid supplements on the advice of your doctor.

9. Avoid lying down immediately after eating.

Multiple Pregnancies

Multiple Pregnancies means that a woman has two or more babies in her uterus. It can be of different types depending upon the number of eggs fertilized. If one egg is fertilized then the babies born are identical and have  the same sex, blood group, skin colour, hair and eyes. If two or more eggs are fertilize by different sperm then the babies born are fraternal. They may have different blood groups and sex. The fraternal babies are born when the parent’s family has had fraternal twins before.

Multiple pregnancies can occur if the mother has used fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization. Fertility drugs helps the body to make more than one egg at a time therefore increasing the chances of more eggs being fertilized. If the woman got pregnant via invitro fertilization   multiple pregnancies are likely because more than one fertilized egg is placed in the uterus. Multiple pregnancies are more in likely in women over the age of 35

The pregnant woman experiences extreme morning sickness compared to the one carrying one baby. Weight gain, abdominal discomfort and premature contractions are likely. The woman must be extremely conscious and consume a nutritious diet this  includes foods rich in calcium and iron which is important for the development of the babies.  A healthy life style should be adopted by not smoking or drinking alcohol equally caffeine should be avoided. Medicines, vitamins or any sort of exercises done during pregnancy should  be after a doctor’s consultation. Some of risks and  complications in multiple pregnancies that a mother can develop include:

1. Preeclampsia

2. Gestational diabetes

3. Miscarriage

In order to avoid these risks, the mother should visit obstetrician more often along with ultrasound exams very 4-6 weeks,  including blood pressure and urine test.


Mumps is a spreadable disease caused by a virus. It typically progresses within a few days of fever, headache, tiredness, and loss of appetite, followed by swollen salivary glands. Mumps is highly transmissible and spreads rapidly among people living in crowded rooms. The virus is transmitted by respiratory drops or straight contact with an infected person.  Even if the child has been vaccinated infection can still occur